Inhibition Capacity of the n-Hexane Fraction of Myrmecodia pendens as a Potential Anti-Cancer in Breast and Cervical Cancer: In Vitro Study

Muhammad Hasan Bashari, Eveline Yuniarti, Tenny Putri, Nurul Qomarilla, Dikdik Kurnia, Mieke Hermiawati Satari, Edhyana Kusumastuti Sahiratmadja, Fathul Huda

Abstract


Breast cancer (BC) and cervical cancer (CC) have a high prevalence and mortality rate worldwide. Despite the availability of advanced treatment, resistance to conventional chemotherapies has emerged. Myrmecodia pendens, one of the species of Sarang Semut (local name), possess a potential of antitumor effects by inducing cell death different cancer cell entities. This study aimed to assess anti-tumor activities of n-hexane fraction of M. pendens in inhibiting cell survival and cell migration in BC and CC cells. M. pendens was extracted in methanol then fractionated using n-hexane or ethyl acetate. BC cells including MCF-7 (luminal A), HCC-1954 (HER2+) cells and CC Hela cells were treated with M. pendens extracts to evaluate cytotoxic activity using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay as well as anti-cell migration using scratch assay. We also analyzed inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of n-hexane fraction in BC and CC cells. We started with comparing cytotoxicity activities of methanol extract, ethyl acetate and n-hexane fractions of M. pendens. Data showed that the n-hexane fraction was the most potent inducing BC cell death. Therefore, we used the n-hexane fraction for further experiments. Interestingly, IC50 of this fraction in HCC-1954 and Hela cells were lower than in MCF-7 cells, 16; 13 and 60 ppm, respectively. Moreover, the low concentrations of n-hexane fraction inhibited HeLa cells migration, compared to control group (p<0.05). The n-hexane fraction of M. pendens shows promising anti-cancer agent, by inhibiting BC and CC cell survival as well as inhibiting CC cells migration.


Keywords: breast cancer, cervical cancer, MTT assay, Sarang Semut, scratch assay


Full Text:

PDF

References


Achmad, H., Armyn, S.A., Supriatno, and Singgih, M.F., 2014, Anti-Cancer Activity and Anti-Proliferation Ant Nests Flavonoid Fraction Test (Myrmecodya Pendans) Human Tongue Cancer Cells In Sp-C1, IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, 13(6), 01–05.

Andriani, Y., Mohamad, H., Kassim, M.N.I., Rosnan, N.D., Syamsumir, D.F., Saidin, J., et al., 2017, Evaluation on Hydnophytum formicarum Tuber from Setiu Wetland (Malaysia) and Muara Rupit (Indonesia) for Antibacterial and Antioxidant activities, and anti-cancer Potency against MCF-7 and HeLa Cells, Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science, 7(09), 30–37. CrossRef

Aungsumart, S., Vaeteewoottacharn, K., Chamutpong, S. and Panglikitmongkol, M., 2007, Chemo-radio resistance in cervical cancer induced by HPV16 E7, ScienceAsia, 33(1), 005. CrossRef

Bashari, M.H., Hidayat, S., Ruswandi, Y.S.R., Putri, T., Qomarilla, N., Dwiwina, R.G., et al., 2018, The n-hexane fraction of Myrmecodia pendans inhibits cells survival and proliferation in colon cancer cell line, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(1), 108. CrossRef

Bray, F., Ferlay, J., Soerjomataram, I., Siegel, R.L., Torre, L.A. and Jemal, A., 2018, Global cancer statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries, CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 68(6), 394–424. CrossRef

Brien, N.A., Browne, B.C., Chow, L., Wang, Y., Ginther, C., Arboleda, J., et al., 2010, Activated Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase/AKT Signaling Confers Resistance to Trastuzumab but not Lapatinib, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, 9(6), 1489–1502. CrossRef

Chahar, M.K., Sharma, N., Dobhal, M.P. and Joshi, Y.C., 2011, Flavonoids: A versatile source of anticancer drugs, Pharmacognosy Reviews, 5(9), 1–12. CrossRef

Dasari, S. and Tchounwou, P.B., 2014, Cisplatin in cancer therapy: Molecular mechanisms of action, European Journal of Pharmacology, 740, 364–378. CrossRef

Robati, M., Holtz, D. and Dunton, C.J., 2008, A review of topotecan in combination chemotherapy for advanced cervical cancer, Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 4(1), 213–218. CrossRef

Engida, A.M., Faika, S., Nguyen-Thi, B.T. and Ju, Y.H., 2015, Analysis of major antioxidants from extracts of Myrmecodia pendans by UV/visible spectrophotometer, liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography/UV techniques, Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, 23(2), 303–309. CrossRef

Fatmawati, D., Puspitasari, P.K. and Yusuf, I., 2011, Efek Sitotoksik Ekstrak Etanol Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendens) Pada Sel Line Kanker Serviks HeLa Uji Eksperimental Secara In Vitro Cytotoxic Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia pendens) on HeLa Cervix Cancer Cell Line, Sains Medika, 3(2), 112–120.

Friedl, P. and Wolf, K., 2003, Tumour-cell invasion and migration: diversity and escape mechanisms, Nature Reviews Cancer, 3(5), 362–374. CrossRef

Guo, P., Pu, T., Chen, S., Qiu, Y., Zhong, X., Zheng, H., et al., 2017, Breast cancers with EGFR and HER2 co-amplification favor distant metastasis and poor clinical outcome, Oncology Letters, 14(6), 6562–6570. CrossRef

Hamsar, M.N. and Mizaton, H.H., 2012, Potential of Ant-Nest Plants As An Alternative Cancer Treatment, Journal of Pharmacy Research, 5(6), 3063–3066.

Hasanuddin, Rifayani, K.S., Supriadi, G., Kurnia, D. and Adhita, D., 2015, Potential of Terpenoid Bioactive Compound Isolated from Papua Ant Nest as an Alternative Ovarian Cancer Treatment, Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 05(07), 406–411. CrossRef

He, M., Cheng, Y., Li, W., Liu, Q., Liu, J., Huang, J., et al., 2010, Vascular endothelial growth factor C promotes cervical cancer metastasis via up-regulation and activation of RhoA/ROCK-2/moesin cascade, BMC Cancer, 10(1), 170. CrossRef

Hertiani, T. and Sasmito, E., 2010, Preliminary Study on Immunomodulatory Effect of Sarang-Semut Tubers Myrmecodia tuberosa and Myrmecodia pendens, OnLine Journal of Biological Sciences, 10(3), 136–141. CrossRef

Jonkman, J.E.N., Cathcart, J.A., Xu, F., Bartolini, M.E., Amon, J.E., Stevens, K.M., et al., 2014, An introduction to the wound healing assay using live-cell microscopy, Cell Adhesion & Migration, 8(5), 440–451. CrossRef

Justus, C.R., Leffler, N., Ruiz-Echevarria, M. and Yang, L.V., 2014, In vitro Cell Migration and Invasion Assays, Journal of Visualized Experiments, 752(88), 10–24. CrossRef

Kang, H-W., Wang, F., Wei, Q., Zhao. Y.-F., Liu, M., Li, X., et al., 2012, miR-20a promotes migration and invasion by regulating TNKS2 in human cervical cancer cells, FEBS Letters, 586(6), 897–904. CrossRef

Kurnia, D., Sumiarsa, D., Dharsono, H.D.A. and Satari, M.H., 2017, Bioactive Compounds Isolated from Indonesian Epiphytic Plant of Sarang Semut and Their Antibacterial Activity against Pathogenic Oral Bacteria, Natural Product Communications, 12(8), 1934578X1701200. CrossRef

Lee, J. and Kim, J.H., 2016, Kaempferol Inhibits Pancreatic Cancer Cell Growth and Migration through the Blockade of EGFR-Related Pathway In Vitro Scarpa A, ed, PLOS ONE, 11(5), e0155264. CrossRef

Liang, C-C., Park, A.Y. and Guan, J-L., 2007, In vitro scratch assay: a convenient and inexpensive method for analysis of cell migration in vitro, Nature protocols, 2(2), 329–333. CrossRef

Liao, C-Y., Lee, C-C., Tsai, C-C., Hsueh, C-W., Wang, C-C., Chen, I-H., et al., 2015, Novel investigations of flavonoids as chemopreventive agents for hepatocellular carcinoma, BioMed Research International, 2015, 1–26. CrossRef

Meerloo, J.V., Kaspers, G.J.L. and Cloos, J., 2011, Cancer Cell Culture (Cree IA, ed.), Totowa, N.J., Humana Press (Methods in Molecular Biology).

Mudjahid, S. and Budiani, D.R., 2015, Pengaruh Pemberian Ekstrak Batang Sarang Semut (Myrmecodia Pendens Merr & Perry) terhadap Ekspresi p21 dan Ekspresi ki67 pada Galur Sel Karsinoma Mammae T47D, Majalah Patologi Indonesia, 21(2). Link

Sanjaya, R.E., Tedjo, Y.Y., Kurniawan, A., Ju, Y-H., Ayucitra, A. and Ismadji, S., 2014, Investigation on supercritical CO2 extraction of phenolic-phytochemicals from an epiphytic plant tuber (Myrmecodia pendans), Journal of CO2 Utilization, 6, 26–33.

Soeksmanto, A., Subroto, M.A., Wijaya, H. and Simanjuntak, P., 2010, Anticancer activity test for extracts of sarang semut plant (Myrmecodya pendens) to HeLa and MCM-B2 cells, Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 13(3), 148–151. CrossRef

Sumardi, Hertiani, T. and Sasmito, E., 2013, Ant Plant (Myrmecodia tuberosa) Hypocotyl Extract Modulates TCD4+ and TCD8+ Cells Profile of Doxorubicin-Induced Immune-Suppressed Sprague Dawley Rats In Vivo, Scientia Pharmaceutica, 81(4), 1057–1069. CrossRef

Supriatno, 2014, Original researchTop Antitumor activity of Papua’s Myrmecodia pendans in human oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line through induction of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 and suppression of cyclin E, Journal of Cancer Research & Therapy, 2(3), 48–53. CrossRef

Tewari, K.S., Sill, M.W., Long, H.J., Penson, R.T., Huang, H., Ramondetta, L.M., et al., 2014, Improved Survival With Bevacizumab in Advanced Cervical Cancer, Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey, 69(6), 331–332. CrossRef




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.14499/indonesianjcanchemoprev11iss3pp115-123

Copyright (c) 2020 Muhammad Hasan Bashari, Eveline Yuniarti, Tenny Putri, Nurul Qomarilla, Dikdik Kurnia, Mieke H Satari, Edhyana Sahiratmadja, Fathul Huda

Indexed by:

               

               

      

 

Indonesian Society for Cancer Chemoprevention