Ethanolic Extract of Secang Heartwood (Caesalpinia sappan L.) Increases Bone Density in Ovariectomized Rats

Bani Adlina Shabrina, Nita Kristiani, Khairunisa Irnanda, Fajar Aji Lumakso, Riris Istighfari Jenie


Osteoporosis has become a major public health concern, due to its rising incidence every year. Osteoporosis mostly occurs in women at menopause, especially in Asia. Secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) heartwood contains brazilin and brazilein which are known to suppress expression of NF-ĸB, an osteoclastogenesis protein playing an important role in osteoporosis.  Thus, the aim of this research is to investigate the inhibition of osteoporosis by ethanolic extract of secang (Caesalpinia sappan L.) (EES) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Thirty female Sprague Dawley rats were divided into five groups treated for 20 days:  group I were OVX and treated with 1000 mg/kgBW EES; group II were OVX and treated with 500 mg/kgBW EES; group III were OVX and treated with CMC-Na; group IV were shame OVX baseline; and group V were non-OVX-baseline. Bone density was examined by using X-Ray rontgen and was strengthen by qualitative data of Giemsa staining. Moreover, total number of osteoclasts in bone slide was observed by TRAP expression using double staining immunohistochemistry with hematoxylin eosin (HE) – TRAP. Treatment of 500 mg/kgBW EES in ovariectomized rats showed the highest bone density of 0.60 gr/cm3 and the lowest number of osteoclasts was 4.66 osteoclasts per field of view. These results showed that EES is potent to be developed as an antiosteoporosis agent. Further study on its dose adjustment and molecular mechanism needs to be conducted.

Keywords: Caesalpinia sappan L., osteoporosis, RANK, bone density

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