Anti-Proliferative Activity of Nigella sativa Chloroform Extract on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene Induced Female Rats Splenocyte

Ahmad Fiki Firdaus, Iskandar Sobri, Heny Ekowati


Previous study reported that Nigella sativa has in vitro and in vivo cancer activity.This study was conducted to observe the effect of chloroform extract of Nigella sativa seed (NCE) on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced female rats’ splenocyte. The experiment consisted of five groups, corn oil solvent control group, DMBA group, DMBA+250 mg/kgBW NCE, DMBA+500 mg/kgBW NCE and DMBA+750 mg/kgBW NCE. Extract was dissolved in corn oil and oral administered daily for 2 weeks before and during the DMBA induction. Observation of cell proliferation was performed using haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and AgNOR stainings. H&E staining showed decreased necrocis activity extract groups compared to DMBA group. From AgNOR staining results, mean AgNOR (mAgNOR) of extract groups was less in number compared to DMBA group. The mAgNOR in corn oil solvent control group, DMBA group, DMBA+250 mg/kgBW NCE, DMBA+500 mg/kgBW NCE and DMBA+750 mg/kgBW NCE were 1.22, 1.91, 1.29, 1.36 and 1.33, respectively. Our current results showed that NCE reduces the proliferation of DMBA-induced rat spleenocytes  Thus, NCE has potency to be developed as a chemopreventive agent.

Keywords: Nigella sativa, spleen, DMBA, anti-proliferative

Full Text:



Aggarwal, B.B., Kunnumakkara, A.B., Harikumar, K.B., Tharakan, S.T., Sung, B. and Anand, P., 2008, Potential of Spice-Derived Phytochemicals for Cancer Prevention, Planta Med., 74(13), 1560–1569. CrossRef

American Cancer Society, 2010, Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma, Website, Link

Bánkfalvi, A., Giuffré, G., Őfner, D., Diallo, R., Poremba, C., Buchwalow, I.B., et al2003, Relationship Between HER2 Status and Proliferation Rate in Breast Cancer Assesed by Immunohistochemistry, Fluorescence in Situ Hybridisation and Standardised AgNOR Analysis, Int. J. Oncol., 23(5), 1285-1292. Link

Ekowati, H., Rahmani, E.P.N. and Rastuti, U., 2011, The Active Fraction From Nigella sativa and Its Activity Against T47D Cell Line, Indones. J. Chem., 11(3), 217-222. CrossRef

Gao, J., Lauer, F.T., Mitchell, L.A. and Burchiell, S.W., 2007, Microsomal Expoxide Hydrolase Is Required for 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)–Induced Immunotoxicity in Mice, Toxicol. Sci., 98(1), 137-144. CrossRef

Gilani, A.H., Jabeen, Q. and Khan, M.A.U., 2004, A Review of Medicinal Uses and Pharmacological Activities ofNigella Sativa, Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 7(4), 441-451. CrossRef

Golstein, P. and Kroemer, G., 2006, Cell Death by Necrosis: Towards a Molecular Definition, Trends Biochem. Sci., 32(1), 37-43. CrossRef

Hanahan, D. and Weinberg, R.A., 2011, Hallmarks of Cancer: The Next Generation, Cell, 144(5), 646-674. CrossRef

Hermawan, A., Murwanti, R., Artanti, N. and Edy Meiyanto, 2011, Effect of the water extract of Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.) Tiegh.leaves on 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]antracene induced female mice liver carcinogensis, Journal of Chinese Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 627-632.

Ilaiyaraja, N. and Khanum, F., 2010, Nigella Sativa L. A Review Of Therapeutic Applications, J. Herbal Med. Toxicol., 4(2), 1-8.

Ivankovic, S., Stojkovic, R. Jukic, M., Milos, M. and Jurin, M., 2006, The Antitumor Activity of Thymoquinone and Thymohydroquinone In Vitro and In Vivo, Exp. Oncol., 28(3), 220-224. Link

Murray, R.K., Granner, D.K. and Rodwell, V.W., 2006, Biokimia Harper, Jakarta: Penerbit Buku Kedokteran EGC (In Indonesia).

Patri, M., Padmini, A. and Babu, P.P., 2009, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Air and Their Neurotoxic Potency in Association with Oxidative Stress : A brief Perspective, Ann. Neurosci., 16(1), 22-30. CrossRef

Pich, A., Margaria, E., Chiusa, L., Bortolin, P. and Palestro, G., 2003, Relationship Between AgNORs, MIB-1 and OncogeneExpression in Male Breast Carcinoma and Papillary Superficial Bladder Neoplasm, Oncology Rep., 10(5), 1329-1335. Link

Rajapaksa, K.S., Sipes, I.G. and Hoyer, P.B., 2007, Involvement of Microsomal Epoxide Hydrolase Enzyme in Ovotoxicity Caused by 7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene, Toxicol. Sci., 96(2), 327-334. CrossRef

Rizali, E. and Auerkari, E.I., 2003, Teknik Pewarnaan Silver (AgNOR) Sebagai Salah Satu Cara MenentukanAktivitas Proliferasi Sel Tumor dan Apoptosis, Jurnal Kedokteran Gigi Indonesia, 10(3), 41-45.

Shimada, T. and Guengerich, F.P., 2006, Inhibition of Human Cytochrome P450 1A1-, 1A2-, and 1B1-Mediated Activation of Procarcinogens to Genotoxic Metabolites by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Chem. Res. Toxicol., 19(2), 288-294. CrossRef

Syazana, M.S.N., Halim, A.S., Gan, S.H., and Shamsuddin, S., 2011, Antiproliferative Effect of Methanolic Extraction of Tualang Honey on Human Keloid Fibroblasts, BMC Complement. Altern. Med., 11(82), 472-482. CrossRef

Yazan, L.S., Ng, W.K., Al-Naqeeb, G. and Ismail, M., 2009, Cytotoxicity of Thymoquinone (TQ) from Nigella sativa Towards Human Cervical Carcinoma Cells (HeLa), J. Pharm. Res., 2(4), 585-589. Link


Copyright (c) 2017 Indonesian Journal of Cancer Chemoprevention

Indexed by:




Indonesian Society for Cancer Chemoprevention