In Silico and In Vitro Study Selaginella doederleinii Herb Extract as An Antineoplastic on MCF-7 Cells and Formulation Development of Nano Effervescent Granule

Chaessy Yori Anggraini, Triana Arum Kusumaningtyas, Melisa Juniananda, Dhecella Winy Cintya Ningrum, Rifki Febriansah, Adi Hermawansyah


Breast cancer, the leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women with 685,000 deaths in 2020. Exploring natural compounds with minimal side effects has emerged as a potential treatment. However, utilizing natural substances faces challenges, such as poor bioavailability, requiring technologies like nanotechnology to enhance absorption. This study focuses on evaluating Ethanol Extract of Selaginella doederleinii (EESD) as an anticancer against MCF-7, both in silico, in vitro methode and develop a formulation of EESD nanoparticle effervescent granules. This study commenced with extraction, Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) identification, in silico studies, namely bioinformatics and molecular docking, 3-(4,-5-dimethylthiazo-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) Assay tests on MCF-7, and the formulation of nanoparticle preparations. EESD was extracted using the maceration method, resulting in an extract weighing 103.5 grams with a 6.9% yield. GC-MS identified three major compounds—cyclopentadecanoic, 2-hydroxy; hexadecanoic acid; and 9-octadecanoid, methyl ester. Bioinformatics revealed interactions with specific protein targets, and molecular docking indicated hexadecanoic acid's superior binding to TP53, surpassing paclitaxel at -8.7 kcal/mol. This suggests its potential to modulate TP53, impacting P53's role in impeding cancer cell growth. EESD exhibited an IC50 of 215μg/mL, signifying moderate cytotoxicity. In formulating nanoparticle effervescent granules, five formulas were transformed into nanoparticles and underwent organoleptic, pH, granule dissolution, and water content evaluations. Formula I is the formula that best meets the criteria with a pH of 6.55, granule dissolution <5 minutes, and water content <4%. The research results indicate that EESD shows anticancer activity against MCF-7 and this study has successfully developed a formula of nanoparticle from EESD in effervescent granule form.

Keywords: Selaginella doederleinii, breast cancer, co-Cemotheraphy, MCF-7 Cell, in silico.

Full Text:



Abu Samaan, T.M., Samec, M., Liskova, A., Kubatka, P., and Büsselberg, D., 2019, Paclitaxel’s Mechanistic and Clinical Effects on Breast Cancer, Biomolecules, 9(12), 789. CrossRef

Ajazuddin, and Saraf, S., 2010, Applications of novel drug delivery system for herbal formulations, Fitoterapia, 81(7), 680–689. CrossRef

Anderson, B.O., Ilbawi, A.M., Fidarova, E., Weiderpass, E., Stevens, L., Abdel-Wahab, M., and Mikkelsen, B., 2021, The Global Breast Cancer Initiative: a strategic collaboration to strengthen health care for non-communicable diseases, Lancet Oncol., 22(5), 578–581. CrossRef

Anova, I.T., Kamsina, K., and Hermianti, W., 2016, Formulasi Perbandingan Asam Basa Serbuk Effervescent dari Coklat Bubuk, J. Litbang Ind., 6(2), 99-106. CrossRef

Bangu, A.I., 2018, Formulasi dan Evaluasi Granul Effervescent Ekstrak Etanol Daun Jambu Biji (Psidium guajava L.), Essay, Politeknik Kesehatan Kemenkes Kupang, Kupang.

Belakhdar, G., Benjouad, A., and Abdennebi, E.H., 2015, Determination of some bioactive chemical constituents from Thesium humile Vahl., J. Mater. Environ. Sci., 6(10), 2778-2783.

CCRC, 2017, Protokol In Vitro, Cancer Chemoprevention Research Centre, Yogyakarta, Website:

Elisabeth, V., YamLean, P.V.Y., and Supriati, H.S., 2018, Formulasi Sediaan granul Dengan Bahan Pengikat Pati Kulit Pisang Gorojo (Musa acuminafe L.) dan Pengaruhnya pada Sifat Fisik Granul, Pharmacon, 7(4), 1–11.

Hadisoewignyo, L., and Fudholi, A., 2013, Sediaan Solida, XI ed. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar.

Harahap, Y., 2012, Preparasi dan Karakterisasi Nanopartikel Kitosan dengan Variasi Asam, Thesis, Universitas Indonesia, Jakarta.

Haryanti, S., and Widiyastuti, Y., 2017, Aktivitas Sitotoksik pada Sel MCF-7 dari Tumbuhan Indonesia untuk Pengobatan Tradisional Kanker Payudara, Media Penelit. dan Pengemb. Kesehat., 27(4), 247–254. CrossRef

Krishnamoorthy, K., and Subramaniam, P., 2014, Phytochemical Profiling of Leaf, Stem, and Tuber Parts of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi Using GC-MS, Int. Sch. Res. Not., 2014, 567409. CrossRef

Laksana, A.S., 2000, Parameter Standar Umum Ekstrak Tumbuhan Obat, Direktorat Jendral Pengawasan Obat dan Makanan.

Li, S., Wang, X., Wang, G., Shi, P., Lin, S., Xu, D., Chen, B., et al., 2020, Ethyl Acetate Extract of Selaginella doederleinii Hieron Induces Cell Autophagic Death and Apoptosis in Colorectal Cancer via PI3K-Akt-mTOR and AMPKα-Signaling Pathways, Front. Pharmacol, 11, 565090. CrossRef

Mohanraj, V.J., and Chen, Y., 2007, Nanoparticles - A review, Trop. J. Pharm. Res., 5(1), 561–573. CrossRef

Mulwandari, M., 2022, Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Citronella Oil (Cymbopogon nardus L. Rendle) to Inhibit The Growth of Lichen on Temple Stones, Thesis, Universitas Islam Indonesia, Yogyakarta.

Rahmawati, I.S., Dyanti, G.P., Widyanto, R.M., Maulidiana, A.R., Nabila, W., and Purwestri, R.C., 2023, In Vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxicity Effect of Ihau Fruit Extract (Dimocarpus longan var. Malesianus Leenh.) on MCF-7 Breast Cancer Cell Line, Indones. J. Hum. Nutr., 10(1), 59–67.

Risdian, C., Handayani, S., Udin, Z., Andriyani, R., and Angelina, M., 2011, Anticancer Activity of Ethanolic Extract of Selaginella Plana Hieron. on T47d Cell Line in Vitro, Indones. J. Appl. Chem., 13(2), 153. CrossRef

Saputri, D., Kusumaningtyas, T., Setiadi, P., and Febriansah, R., 2022, Investigation of Moringa Leaf Compounds as Colon Anticancer Agents using Bioinformatics and Molecular Docking Methods, Proc. Univ. Muhammadiyah Yogyak. Undergrad. Conf., 2, 24–27.

Sari, S.L., Indra, R.L., and Lestari, R.F., 2019, Korelasi Persepsi Tentang Efek Samping Kemoterapi Dengan Kualitas Hidup Pasien Kanker Payudara, J. Cakrawala Promkes., 1(2), 40-47. CrossRef

Setiana, I.H., Kusuma, A.S.W., 2018, Review Jurnal: Formulasi Granul Effervescent Dari Berbagai Tumbuhan, Farmaka, 16(3), 100-105.

Stewart, B.W., and Wild, C.P. (Eds.), 2014, World cancer report 2014, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.

Supriyanto, Murdiati, A., and Aprilia, F., 2013, Kajian pembuatan effervescent cokelat pada berbagai variasi jumlah asam dan basa yang digunakan terhadap sifat fisik, kimia dan sensorisnya, Proceeding, Jember: Seminar Nasional PATPI, ISBN: 978-602-9030-49-5, pp. 71-80.

Udin, Z., 2013, Sitotoksisitas Xanthorrhizol dari Minyak Atsiri Rimoang Curcuma xanthorrhiza Roxb. terhadap Sel Kanker Payudara YBM-1, Jurnal Kimia Terapan Indonesia, 15(1), 23-29.

Wijayadi, L.J., and Rusli, T.R., 2019, Characterized and synthesis of chitosan nanoparticle as nanocarrier system technology, IOP Conf. Ser. Mater. Sci. Eng., 508, 012143. CrossRef


Copyright (c) 2023 Melisa Juniananda

Indexed by:




Indonesian Society for Cancer Chemoprevention