Antigenotoxicity Activity of Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Leaf Ethanolic Extract on Swiss Mice Induced Cyclophosphamide through Mammalian In Vivo Micronucleus Test

Bani Adlina Shabrina, Juang Juansa, Nindya Budiana Putri, Rohmad Yudi Utomo, Retno Murwanti


Cyclophosphamide (CPA) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent, but has side effect, causing DNA damage (genotoxic). Papaya leaf (Carica papaya L.) is known has flavonoid compound, quercetin. Quercetin is known has DNA protecting effect (antigenotoxic effect) by metabolism modulation. Thus, the aim of this research is to investigate the antigenotoxic effect of ethanolic extract of papaya (Carica papaya L.) leaf (EEPL) on CPA induced mice. The antigenotoxic effect was evaluated by mammalian in vivo micronucleus test. EEPL was orally administered as single treatment at dose 1000 mg/kgBW and in combination with CPA 50 mg/kgBW at dose 250 mg/kgBW; 500 mg/kgBW; and 1000 mg/kgBW. Molecular docking using PLANTS on CYP 3A4 was performed to explore the antigenotoxic effect mechanism. The three different combination dose of EEPL with CPA significantly (P<0.05) decreased the amount of micronucleated polychromatic erytrhocyte (MNPCE)/1000 polychromatic erythrocyte (PCE) and also increased % PCE/(PCE+normochromatic erythrocyte (NCE)), compared with single dose of CPA. Nevertheless, the antigenotoxic effect wasn’t significant compared with each combination dose. The docking score result showed quercetin (-82,41) has more potent interaction to CYP 3A4 than cyclophosphamide (-70,16) and both of them has similar active site at amino acid residue Ile 369 and Thr 309. The results obtained indicated that EEPL at dose 250 mg/KgBB is the optimal dose as antigenotoxic agent by interaction between quercetin with CYP 3A4 based on molecular docking.

Keywords: antigenotoxic, Carica papaya L., MNPCE, in vivo

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